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Criminal Code

The Criminal Code Of The Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia Preface

PART I

GENERAL PART
BOOK I
CRIMES AND CRIMINALS
TITLE I

Criminal Law And Its Scope

CHAPTER I

SCOPE OF THE LAW

Object and Purpose
Principle of Legality
Other Penal Legislation
Equality Before the Law

CHAPTER II

SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE LAW

Section I- Conditions as to Time

Non-retrospective Effect of Criminal Law
Exception: Application of the More Favourable Law
Application as to Measures
Application as to Periods of Limitation
Enforcement of Judgements passed under Repealed Legislation.
Application as to Cancellation and Reinstatement

Section II- Conditions as to Place

Sub-section I- Principal Application
Crimes Committed on Ethiopian Territory: Normal Case
Special Case: Delegation
Crimes Committed against Ethiopia Outside Its Territory
Crimes Committed in a Foreign Country by an Ethiopian Enjoying Immunity
Crimes Committed in a Foreign Country by a Member of the Defence Forces
Effect of Foreign Sentences

Sub-section II- Subsidiary Application

Crimes Committed Outside Ethiopia Against International
Law or Universal Order
Other Crimes Committed Outside Ethiopia
Conditions of Subsidiary Application
Effect of Foreign Sentences

Sub-section III-General Provisions

Extradition

Recognition of Foreign Sentences

TITLE II

The Crime And Its Commission

CHAPTER I

THE CRIME

Crimes
Relationship of Cause and Effect
Place and Time of the Crime

CHAPTER II

DEGREES IN THE COMMISSION OF THE CRIME

Preparatory Acts
Attempt
Renunciation and Active Repentance
Crime Impossible of Completion
Special Case of Attempt
Discretionary Power of the Court

CHAPTER III

PARTICIPATION IN THE COMMISSION OF A CRIME

Principal Criminal
Participation in Cases of Special Crimes
Participation of a Juridical Person in a Crime.
Collective Crimes
Incitement
Accomplice
Criminal Conspiracy
Failure to reporter
Accessory After the Fact
Non-transmissibility of Personal Circumstances

CHAPTER IV

PARTICIPATION IN CRIMES RELATING TO THE MASS MEDIA

Principle
Liability for Crimes Committed through the Mass Media.
Special Criminal Liability of the Author, Originator, or
Publisher
Secrecy of the Identity of a Source
Exclusion of Double Liability
Immunity

TITLE III

Conditions Of Liability To Punishment In Respect Of Crimes

CHAPTER I

CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

Section I- Ordinary Responsibility

Criminal Responsibility and Irresponsibility.
Partial Responsibility.
Crimes Committed in a State of Irresponsibility Caused by intoxication or Other Similar Conditions
Expert Examination in Doubtful Cases

Section II- Infants and Juvenile Delinquents

Infancy: Exoneration from Criminal Provisions
Special Provisions Applicable to Young Persons.
Expert Evidence and Enquiry.
Assessment of Sentence.
Criminals Over Fifteen but Under Eighteen Years of Age.

CHAPTER II

CRIMINAL GUILT

Section I- Intention, Negligence and Accident

Principle: Criminal Fault and Accident

Sub-section I Guilt in Case of a Simple Crime

Criminal Intention.
Criminal Negligence.

Sub-section II- Criminal Guilt in Case of Concurrence and Recidivism

Concurrent Crimes
Unity of Guilt and Penalty
Renewal of Guilt Entailing a Fresh Penalty
Guilt in Case of Related Crimes
Guilt in Case of Other Concurrent Material Crimes
Guilt in Case of Notional Concurrence Violating Different
Legal Provisions
Guilt in Case of Notional Concurrence Resulting in Crimes with Various Material Consequences
Guilt in Case of Recidivism.

Section II- Lawful Acts, Justifiable Acts and Excuses

Sub-section I- Lawful Acts

Acts Required or Authorized by Law
Professional Duty

Sub-section II- Justifiable Acts and Excuses

Consent of the Victim
Absolute Coercion
Resistible Coercion
Responsibility of Person Giving an Order
Responsibility of the Subordinate
Necessity
Excess of Necessity
Military State of Necessity
Legitimate Defence
Excess in Legitimate Defence
Mistake of Fact
Mistake of Law and Ignorance of Law

Section III- Extenuating and Aggravating Circumstances

General Extenuating Circumstances
Special Mitigating Circumstances: Family and Affection Relationships
General Aggravating Circumstances
Special Aggravating Circumstances: Concurrence and Recidivism
Other General Extenuating and aggravating
Circumstances.

BOOK II

THE CRIMINAL PUNISHMENT AND ITS APPLICATION

TITLE I

Punishments And Other Measures And Their Enforcement

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Principle
Calculation of Sentence
Minor Crimes

CHAPTER II

ORDINARY PUNISHMENTS APPLICABLE TO ADULTS

Section I- Principal Punishments

Sub-Section I- Pecuniary Penalties

Paragraph I- Fine, Confiscation and Sequestration

Fine: Principles to be applied When Fine Imposed
The Imposition of Fine in Addition to Imprisonment
Motive of Gain as an Aggravating Circumstance
Recovery of Fine
Steps Taken by the Court When Fine is not Paid Forthwith
Conversion of Fine into Labour
Conversion of Fine into Compulsory Labour
Suspension of Enforcement of Compulsory Labour
Confiscation of Property
Sequestration of Property
Paragraph II. Other Pecuniary Effects

Forfeiture to the State.
Restitution of Property, Compensation for Damages and Costs
Compensation to Injured Party.

Sub-section II- Compulsory Labour and Penalties Entailing Loss of Liberty

Paragraph I- Compulsory Labour

Compulsory Labour with Deduction of Wages to the Benefit of the State
Compulsory Labour With Restriction of Personal Liberty
Suspension of Sentence During Illness

Paragraph II- Penalties Entailing Loss of Liberty

Simple Imprisonment
Substitution of Compulsory Labour for Simple imprisonment
Rigorous Imprisonment
Common Provisions
Separation of Sexes and Segregation
Obligation to Do Work and Benefits Accruing There from
Variation of Conditions of Imprisonment
Conditional Release before Expiry of Period of Sentence
Execution of Sentence in the Case of Members of the Defence Forces
Deduction of Period of Remand
Period of Time Spent in Hospital and Transfer in Case of Illness

Sub-section III- Punishment of Death

General Principles
Treatment of Prisoner Awaiting Execution
Cases Where Death penalty May be Suspended
Commutation of Sentences of Death

Section II- Secondary Punishments

Principles
Caution, Reprimand, Admonishment and Apology
Deprivation of Rights
Period of Deprivation
Date from Which Deprivation Shall have Effect
Reinstatement
Dismissal from the Defence Forces and Reduction in Rank
Legal Effect

CHAPTER III
MEASURES APPLICABLE TO ADULTS IN SPECIAL CASES
Section I- Measures Applicable to Irresponsible
Persons and Criminals with a Limited Responsibility

Principle
Confinement
Treatment
Duration of Confinement or Treatment
Effect of Limited Responsibility upon Penalty

Section II- GENERAL MEASURES FOR PURPOSES OF

PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

Principle

Sub-section I- Measures of a Material Nature

Guarantee of Good Conduct: Principle
Refusal of Recognizance of Guarantee
Legal Effect
Inability to Furnish a Guarantee
Repetition of the Measure
Seizure of Dangerous Articles
Common Provision: General Preventive Application

Sub-section II- Measures Entailing Restrictions on Activities
Suspension and Withdrawal of a License
Prohibition and closing of an Undertaking
Effect of Non-observance

Sub-section III- Measures Entailing a Restriction on Personal Liberty
Prohibition from Resorting to Certain Places
Prohibition of Settle Down or Reside in a Place
Obligation to Reside in a Specified Place or Area
Placing Under Supervision
Withdrawal of Official papers
Prohibition from Residing in the Territory; Expulsion
Enforcement

Suspension of the Measures by way of Probation

Penalty in Case of Violation of Safety Provisions
Sub-section IV- Measures for Purposes of Information
Notification to the Competent Authority
Publication of the Judgement
Entry in Judgement Register

CHAPTER IV
MEASURES AND PENALTIES APPLICABLE TO YOUNG PERSONS
Section I- Period Between Ages of Nine and Fifteen

Sub-section I- Ordinary Measures
Principle
Admission to a Curative Institution
Supervised Education
Reprimand; Censure.
School or Home Arrest
Admission to a Corrective Institution
Duration of the Measures
Variation of the Measures
Legal Effect of the Measures
Principle
Fine
Imprisonment

Sub-section III. Common Provisions

Petty Cases; Waiving of Penalty for Definite Reasons
Special Period of Limitation
Suspended Sentence and Period of Probation
Effect of Measures and Penalties upon Civil Rights
Preventive and Protective Measures of a General Nature
Publication of Judgement and Entry in Judgement Register
Cancellation of Entry and Reinstatement

Section II- Period Between Ages of Fifteen and Eighteen

Normal Case.
Special Case.

TITLE II

Determination, Suspension, Discontinuance And Extinction Of The Penalty

CHAPTER I
DETERMINATION AND SUSPENSION OF THE PENALTY
Section I- Determination

Assessment of the Penalty in Case of Mitigation or Aggravation Provided by Law

Sub-section I- Rules Governing Mitigation and Exemption

Ordinary Mitigation
Free Mitigation
Common Provisions
Exemption from and Waiving of Penalty

Sub-section II- Rules Governing Aggravation

Ordinary Aggravation.
Aggravation of Penalty in Case of Concurrent Crimes.
Special Case.
Retrospective Concurrence.
Aggravation of Penalty in Case of Notional Concurrence.
Aggravation in Case of Recidivism.

Sub-section III- Cumulation of Extenuating and Aggravating

Circumstances

Cumulation of Different Extenuating and Aggravating Circumstances

Section II- Suspension of Penalty

Sub-section I- Conditional Suspension of Penalty

Principle.
Suspension of Pronouncement of the Penalty;
Suspended Sentence
Suspension of Enforcement of the Penalty.
Cumulation of Penalties, Divisibility of Suspension.
Disallowance and Withdrawal of Suspension.
Enquiry.
Common Provisions: Period of Probation.
Conditions of the Probation.
Rules of Conduct to be Imposed upon the Criminal.
Control and Supervision.
Effect of Failure of Probation.

Sub-section II- Conditional Release

Principle.
Conditions for Release.
Information Concerning Conditional Release.
Period of Probation.
Rules of Conduct and of Supervision.
Result of Probation.
Effect of Prohibitions and Other Measures.

Sub-section III- Supervision by a Charitable Organization

Principle.
Purpose and Duties.
Organization.

CHAPTER II
DISCONTINUANCE AND EXTINCTION OF

THE PROSECUTION AND THE PENALTY

Section I- Absence of Accuser or Accused

Sub-section I- Absence of Accusation or Complaint

Right of Complaint or Accusation in General.
Crimes Punishable upon a Formal Complaint.
Time within which to lodge a Complaint.

Sub-section II- Death of an Accused or a Convicted Person

Death of the Accused Prior to Conviction.
Death of a Convicted Person.

Section II- Limitation as to Prosecution and Penalties
Sub-section I- Limitation as to Prosecution

Principle and Effect.
Ordinary Limitation Periods.
Special Periods.
Calculation of Periods.
Suspension of Period of Limitation.
Interruption of Period of Limitation.
Absolute Limitation.

Sub-section II- Limitation of Penalties and Measures

Principle and Effect.
Ordinary Periods of Limitation of Penalties and Measures
Calculation of the Period.
Suspension of Period of Limitation of Penalty and Measures
Interruption of Period of Limitation of Penalty.
Absolute Period of Limitation of Penalties and Measures.

Section III- Pardon and Amnesty

Pardon.
Amnesty.
Civil Reparation and Costs.

Section IV- Reinstatement

Principle.
Conditions for Reinstatement.
Special Cases.
Effects of Reinstatement.
Dismissal and Renewal of the Request.
Revocation of the Decision

PART II
S P E C I A L P A R T

BOOK III

CRIMES AGAINST THE STATE OR AGAINST

NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS

TITLE I

Crimes Against The State

CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST THE NATIONAL STATE

Section I- Crimes against The Constitutional Order and the Internal Security of the States

Sub-section I- Crimes Against the Constitution or the State

Outrages against the Constitution or the Constitutional Order.
Obstruction of the exercise of Constitutional Powers.
Armed Rising or Civil War.
Attack on the Political or Territorial Integrity of the State.
Violation of Territorial or Political Sovereignty.
Unlawful Departure, Entry or Residence.

Sub-section II- Injuries and Insult to the State

Attacks against the State and National and other Emblems.
Unlawful use of Official emblems.

Section II- Crimes against the External Security and

Defensive

Power of the State

Attacks on the Independence of the State.
Impairment of the Defensive Power of the State.
High Treason.
Treason.
Economic Treason.
Collaboration with the Enemy.
Espionage.
Protection extended to Allied Powers.

Section III- Common Provisions

Indirect Aid and Encouragement.
Attempted Incitement and Assistance.
Material preparation of Subversive Acts.
Provocation and Preparation.
Aggravation to the Crime.
Additional penalties and measures.
Confiscation of Property.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST FOREIGN STATES

Hostile Acts Against a Foreign State.
Outrages against Foreign Heads of State, Representatives and Other Persons Enjoying Protections under International Law.
Violation of Foreign Sovereignty.
Insults to Foreign States.
Insults to the Official Emblems of Foreign States.
Insults to Inter-State Institutions.
Reciprocity.
Condition of Prosecution.

TITLE II

Crimes In Violation Of International Law

CHAPTER I

FUNDAMENTAL CRIMES

Genocide.
War Crimes against the civilian Population.
War Crimes against Wounded, Sick or Shipwrecked
Persons or Medical Services
War Crimes against Prisoners and Interned Persons.
Pillage, Piracy and Looting.
Provocation and Preparation.
Dereliction of Duty Towards the Enemy.
Use of Illegal Means of Combat.
Breach of Armistice or Peace Treaty.
Franc Tireurs.
Maltreatment of, or Dereliction of Duty towards,
Wounded, Sick or Prisoners.
Denial of Justice.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

Hostile Acts against International Humanitarian Organizations
Abuse of Emblems and Insignia of International Humanitarian Organizations
Hostile Acts against the Bearer of a Flag of Truce.

TITLE III

Military Crimes And Crimes Against The Defence Forces And The Police

CHAPTER I

MILITARY CRIMES

Section I- Breaches of Liability to Serve

Refusal to Perform Military Service.
Failure to Comply With a Calling-up Order.
Intentionally Contracted Unfitness.
Fraudulent Evasion of Service.
Desertion.
Absence without leave.
Voluntary Failure to Rejoin the Defiance Forces.

Section II- Abuse of Military Authority

Unlawful Exemption from Service.
Threats or Violence against an Inferior.

Section III- Breaches of Military Duty

Sub-section I- Crimes Endangering Good Service Regulations

Infringement of General Service Regulations.
Incomplete or inaccurate official statements.
Drunkenness of Active Duty.
Want of Discipline.
Insults or Threats to, or Assaults upon, a Person of Superior or Equal Rank
Insubordination.
Mutiny.
Conspiracy or Concert to Raise a Mutiny.
Incitement and Assistance.
Crimes against Guards, Sentries or Patrols.

Sub-section II- Crimes against Guard Duty or Instructions

Breaches of Guard Duty.
Infringement of Military Instructions.
Disclosure or Alteration of Instructions

Sub-section III- Crimes against Honesty

Misuse or Waste of Material.
Malversation or Receipt of ill-gotten gains.
Failure to report Danger.
Failure to take Essential Security Measures.
Raising a False Alarm.
Demoralization of the Defence Forces.
Cowardice.
Capitulation.
Abandonment of Means of War Intact.
Improper use of Enemy Uniform or Arms.
Abandonment of a Wounded or Killed Member.
Crime Committed against the possessions of a wounded or killed Member.

Section V- Common Provisions

Crimes Committed by Civilians or by Members or the Militia.
Crimes Committed by Prisoners of War or Military Internees.
Breaches of Military Duty Committed by Officers or Commanding Officers
Additional Penalties in Grave Cases.
Disciplinary Penalties Excepted.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST THE DEFENCE FORCES AND

MEMBERS THEREOF

Section I- Crimes against Members of the Defence Forces on Active Duty

Compelling breaches of duty
Attack on a Member of the Defence Forces while on Active Duty
Aggravated Cases

Section II- Crimes against the Defence Forces And their Auxiliary Services

Branch of Legal or Contractual Obligations
Sabotage
Traffic in Military Material
Unauthorized manufacture of, and traffic in, Military Uniforms, Insignia or Decorations
Unauthorized Wearing of Military Uniforms, Decorations or Insignia
Disregard of Military Measures.
Incitement to Disregard Military Orders.
Disregard of Prohibitions Protecting Specified Military Zones and Objects
Falsification or Suppression of General Orders of Instructions
Failure to Report Crimes Against the Defence Forces and Breaches of Military Obligations
Disclosure of Military Secrets.
False or Tendentious Information.

Section III- Common Provisions

Aggravation of Punishment in Cases of State of Emergency or War
Crimes Committed for Gain

CHAPTER III

APPLICATION OF ARTICLES 284-337 TO THE POLICE

Principle of Application
Special Circumstances
The Application of the Provisions Regarding Public Servants on the Police

TITLE IV

Crimes Against The Fiscal And Economic Interests Of The State
CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Crimes Committed in Branch of Special Legislation.
Kind and Extent of Penalties.
Collateral penalties Relating to Taxes and Dues.

CHAPTER II

SPECIAL PROVISIONS

Illicit Traffic in Gold, Currencies or Foreign Exchange.
Illicit Traffic in Precious Minerals.
Dealings Endangering the Credit of the State’s Finance.
Unlawful Refusal to Pay Public Taxes or Dues.
Incitement to Refusal to pay Taxes.
Endangering Sources of revenue.
Contraband.
Crimes against the National Economy and State Monopolies.
Aggravation to the Crime.

TITLE V

Crimes Against Currencies, Government Bonds Or Security Documents, Official Seals, Stamps Or Instruments

CHAPTER I

COUNTERFEIT CURRENCY, BOND OR SECURITY DOCUMENTS

General Provision Concerning Juridical Person
Making.
Forgery.
Debasing.
Importation, Exportation, acquisition, Acceptance in Trust or Offer.
Presumption of Intent to Utter.
Uttering.
Petty Cases.

CHAPTER II

FALSIFICATION OF OFFICIAL SEALS, STAMPS,

MARKS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Falsification or Improper use of the Seals of the State.
Falsification and Improper use of other Public or Private Seals.
Falsification of Official Marks.
Falsification of Official Stamps of Value.
Falsification of Weights and Measures.
Importation, Exportation, Purchase, Acceptance in Trust and Offer.

CHAPTER III

COMMON PROVISIONS

Counterfeiting without intent to defraud.
Endangering of the Currency, Bonds or Security
Documents, or Official Marks, Stamps or Seals.
Machinery and Means of Falsification.
Mitigating Circumstances.
Special Aggravating Circumstances.
Protection of the Interests of Foreign States.

BOOK IV

CRIMES AGAINST THE PUBLIC INTEREST OR THE COMMUNITY
TITLE I

Breaches Of Public Confidence

CHAPTER I

Falsification, Forgery And Suppression Of Instruments

Material Forgery.
Intangible Forgery.
Specified Cases.
Use of Forged Instruments.
Forgery or Falsification of Public or Military Documents.
Suppression of Instruments.
Suppression of Public or Military Documents.
Falsification or Suppression of Commercial instruments or Negotiable Securities
True or Certified Copies.
Falsification and use of False Public Transport Tickets.

CHAPTER II

FORGERY OR CERTIFICATES

Forged Certificates.
Fraudulent Procurement of False Official Certification.
Issuing False Medical Certificate.
Concurrent Crimes.
False Declaration and Entries.
Instruments and Means of Falsification.

CHAPTER III

FALSIFICATION OF GOODS

Falsification and Adulteration.
Uttering.
Importation, Exportation, Acquisition and Storing of Goods.
Aggravation and Collateral Penalties.
Falsification and Adulteration Injurious to Health.

TITLE II

Breach Of Secrecy Against Public Interest

Breaches of Military Secrecy.
Breaches of Official Secrecy.
Authorized Disclosure.
Breaches of Professional Secrecy.
Authorized Disclosure.
Disclosure of Scientific, Industrial or Trade Secrets.

TITLE III

Crimes Against Public Office
CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Definitions.
Presumption of Intent to Obtain Advantage or to Injure.
Principle
The Concurrent Application of Administrative Penalties and Compensation
Exemption from Prosecution.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC SERVANTS
AGAINST PUBLIC OFFICE

Section I- Corruption Crimes Committed by Public Servants Breach of Trust and Good Faith

Abuse of Power
Corrupt Practices
Acceptance of Undue Advantages
Corruption Committed by Arbitrators and Other Persons
Maladministration
Unlawful Disposal of Object in Charge
Appropriation and Misappropriation in the Discharge of Duties
Traffic in Official Influence
Illegal Collection or Disbursement
Undue Delay of Matters
Taking Things of Value without or with Inadequate Consideration
Granting and Approving License Improperly.
Possession of Unexplained Property

Section II- Crimes Committed in Breach of Official Duties

Crimes Committed in Dereliction of Duty
Unlawful Striking.
Abuse of the Right of Search or Seizure.
Unlawful Arrest or Detention.
Use of Improper Methods.
Unlawful Release and Aiding to Escape.
Release of Prisoners of War, or Military Internees and Aiding to Escape

CHAPTER III

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC OFFICE BY THIRD PARTIES

Section I- Crimes of Corruption Committed by Third Parties in Connection with Public Office

Soliciting of Corrupt practices.
Giving Things of Value Without or With Inadequate Consideration.
Acting as a go-between.
Use of Pretended Authority.
Traffic in Private Influence.

Section II- Crimes Committed by Third Parties Against the performance of Public Duty

Contempt of official notices and proclamations.
Engaging in an activity without or beyond the scope of a License.
Infraction of the Rules Concerning Compulsory Registration.
Branch of Prohibition to publish Official Debates or Documents
Arbitrary Action.
Usurpation of Powers.
Obstruction of Government Functions and Breaches of the Duty to co-operate.
Braking of Seals and Misappropriation of Objects.
Resisting Authority.
Violence and Coercion
Collective Action

TITLE IV

Crime Against The Administration Of Justice

CHAPTER 1

CRIMES AGAINST JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS

Failure to Report a Crimes
Crimes against whistle blowers or Witnesses.
Harbouring and Aiding.
Misleading Justice.
False Denunciation or Accusation.
Refusal to Aid Justice.
Contempt of Court.
Breach of Secrecy of Proceedings.
Publication of Inaccurate or Forbidden Reports of Proceedings

CHAPTER II

PERJURY AND COGNATE CRIMES

False Statements by a Party.
False Testimony, Opinion or Translation.
Correction or Withdrawal.
Provocation and Suborning.
Misrepresentation in Proceedings.
Tendentious Publications intended to pervert the Course of Justice.
Betrayal of Interests.

CHAPTER III

CRIMES AGAINST EXECUTION OF SENTENCE

Non-observance of Secondary Penalties and Preventive Measures.
Obstruction of Execution of Sentence.
Escape of Prisoner.
Procuring of, and aiding to, Escape.
Escape of Prisoners of War and Military Internees and Aiding them to Escape
Mutiny of Prisoners.
Breaking of Bounds.

TITLE V

Crimes Against Public Elections And Voting

Disturbance and Prevention of Electoral Meetings and Proceedings
Interference with the Exercise of the Right of Voting or Election.
Corrupt Electoral Practices.
Unfair Practices.
Fraudulent Registration.
Fraudulent Elections.
Concurrence of Crimes.
Breach of Secrecy of the Ballot.
Removal or Destruction of Ballot Papers or Boxes.
Additional Penalties.
Aggravating Circumstances.

TITLE VI

Crimes Against Public Security, Peace And Tranquility

CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC SECURITY
SECTION I- CRIMES CALCULATED OR LIKELY TO PROVOKE
THE COMMISSION OF OTHER CRIMES

Dangerous Vagrancy.
Conspiracy.
Harbouring and Assisting of Evil-doers.
Public Provocation to or Defence of a Crime.
Prohibited Traffic in Arms.

Section II- Crimes Calculated or Likely to Provoke Public Disturbances.

Forbidden Societies and Meetings.
Secret Societies and Armed Bands.
Forbidden Assemblies.
Alarming the Public.
Inciting the Public through False Rumours.
Seditious Demonstrations.
Rioting.
Leniency; Submission.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC PEACE AND TRANQUILITY

Disturbances of Meetings or Assemblies.
Disturbances Resulting from Acts Committed in a State of Culpable Irresponsibility
Outrage on Religious Peace and Feeling.
Outrage on the Repose and Dignity of the Dead.

TITLE VII

Crimes Against Public Safety And The Security Of Communications
CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC SAFETY

Arson.
Provocation of Natural Disaster.
Damage to Installations or Protective Works.
Explosions.
Crimes Resulting from Negligence.
Danger caused by the use of Explosive, Inflammable or poisonous Substances
Illicit Making, Acquisition, Concealment or Transport of Explosive, Inflammable or Poisonous Substances.
Culpable Infringement of Building Rules.
Removal or Culpable Omission of Protective Apparatus or Devices
Failure to Give Warning of Grave Public Danger.
Reserved Cases.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST THE FREEDOM AND

SECURITY OF COMMUNICATIONS

Damage to Services and Installations of Public Interest. Grave Endangering or Sabotage of Communications or Transport.
Unlawful Seizure or Control of an Aircraft.
Endangering Fixed Platform on a Continental Shelf or an Aircraft or a Ship.
Damage to Fixed Platform, an Aircraft or a Ship.
Misuse of Signals and Alarms.
Unlawful Consignment of Dangerous Goods.
Grave Cases.
Participation of a Juridical Person in a Crime.

TITLE VII

Crimes Against Public Health
CHAPTER I

INFRINGEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROTECTIVE

PROVISIONS
Section I- Crimes Committed by Spreading Diseases and Polluting the Environment

Spreading of Human Diseases.
Spreading Animal Diseases.
Propagation of an Agricultural or Forest Parasite.
Contamination of Water.
Contamination of Pasture land.
Environmental Pollution.
Mismanagement of Hazardous Wastes and other Materials.
Acts Contrary to Environmental Impact Assessment.
Infringement of Preventive and Protective Public Health Measures
Creation of Distress or Famine.
Participation of a Juridical Person

Section II- Crimes Committed Through Production and

Distribution of Substances Hazardous to Human and Animal Health

Producing, Making, Trafficking in or Using Poisonous or Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances.
Doping.
Manufacture, Adulteration and Sale of Injurious or Damaged Products or Foodstuffs.
Manufacture, Adulteration and Sale of Fodder and Products Injurious to Live-Stock.
Aggravating Circumstances.
Participation of a Juridical Person.
Endangering the Health of Another by Alcoholic Beverages or Spirituous Liquors.
Endangering by Mental Means or Practices.
Endangering by Philtres, Spells or Similar Means.
Aggravated Cases.

CHAPTER II

INFRINGEMENTS OF CURATIVE AND PROTECTIVE PROVISIONS

Unlawful Exercise of the Medical or Public-Health Professions.
Unlawful Delivery of Poisonous or Dangerous Substances.
Refusal to Provide Medical Assistance.

BOOK V

CRIMES AGAINST INDIVIDUALS AND THE FAMILY
TITLE I

Crimes Against Life, Person And Health
CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST LIFE
SECTION I- Homicide and its Forms

Principle.
Aggravated Homicide.
Ordinary Homicide.
Extenuated Homicide.
Instigating or Aiding another to Commit Suicide.
Homicide by Negligence.
Infanticide.

Section II Crimes against Life Unborn; Abortion

Principle
Abortion Procured by the Pregnant Woman.
Abortion Procured by Another.
Aggravated Cases.
Attempt to Procure an Abortion on a Non-Pregnant Woman.
Extenuating Circumstances.
Cases where Terminating Pregnancy is Allowed by Law.
Procedure of Terminating Pregnancy and the Penalty of Violating the Procedure.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST PERSON AND HEALTH

Principle
Expert Assessment In Case of Doubtful Cases
Grave Wilful Injury
Common Wilful Injury
Extenuating Circumstances
Consequences not Intended by the Criminal
Injuries caused by Negligence
Assaults

CHAPTER III

CRIMES COMMITTED AGAINST LIFE, PERSON AND HEALTH

THROUGH HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICES

Endangering the Lives of Pregnant Women and Children Through Harmful Traditional Practices
Causing Bodily Injury to Pregnant Women and Children Through Harmful Traditional Practices
Discretion of the Court
Violence Against a Marriage Partner or a Person cohabiting in an Irregular Union
Female Circumcision
Infibulation of the Female Genitalia
Bodily Injuries Caused Through Other Harmful Traditional Practices
Transmission of Disease Through Harmful Traditional Practices
Participation in Harmful Traditional Practices
Incitement Against the Enforcement of Provisions Prohibiting Harmful Traditional Practices

CHAPTER IV

CRIMES ENDANGERING LIFE, PERSON OR HEALTH

Exposure of the Life of Another
Exposing to Danger through the Violation of Traffic Regulations
Endangering the Human Body
Exposure or abandonment of another
Failure to Lend aid to another
Maltreatment of Minors
Brawls
Duels
Duelling: Challenge, Incitement and Aiding

TITLE II

Crimes Against Liberty

CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY

Intimidation.
Threat of Accusation of Disgrace.
Coercion.
Deprivation of Powers of Decision.
Combination of Crimes.
Illegal Restraint.
Abduction of Another.
Abduction of a Woman.
Abduction of an Unconscious or Defenceless Woman.
Abduction of a Minor.
Aggravation to the Crime.
Substitution of an Infant for Another and Taking Away of an Infant belonging to Another.
Failure to Produce a Minor.
Ascendants’ Special Case.
Aggravated Cases.
Political Abduction.
Enslavement.
Trafficking in Women and Children.
Unlawful Sending of Ethiopians for Work Abroad.
Participation of Illegal Associations and Juridical Persons in Crimes Specified in this Chapter.
Default of Supervision of Control.

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST OTHER PERSONS’ RIGHTS

Restraint of the Free Exercise of Civil Rights.
Violation of the Right of Freedom of Movement.
Violation of the Right of Freedom to work.
Violation of Privacy of Domicile or Restricted Areas.
Aggravation to the crime.
Violation of the Privacy of Correspondence or Consignments

TITLE III

Crimes Against Honor

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Principle.
Means of Commission.
Punishment to be imposed where the Crime is Committed by Juridical Persons
Compensation.
Immunity.
Non-Punishable Comment and Averments.

CHAPTER II

SPECIAL PROVISIONS; INJURY TO HONOUR

Defamation and Calumny
Truthful Assertions and Safeguarding of Higher Interest Excepted
Insulting Behavior and Outrage
Provocation and Retaliation
Withdrawal and Repentance
Special Cases Aggravating the Crime Proceedings in Respect of Injury to the Honour of Absent of Deceased Persons.

TITLE IV

Crimes Against Morals And The Family

CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST MORALS

Section I- Injury to Sexual Liberty and Chastity

Rape
Compelling a Man to Sexual Intercourse
Sexual Outrages Accompanied by Violence
Sexual Outrages on Unconscious or Deluded Persons, or on Persons Incapable of Resisting
Sexual Outrages on Persons in Hospital, Interned or Under Detention
Taking Advantage of the Distress or Dependence of a Woman
Sexual Outrages on Minors between the Ages of Thirteen and Eighteen Years
Sexual Outrages Committed on Infants.
Other Grounds Aggravating the Crime

Section II- Sexual Deviations

Homosexual and other Indecent Acts
General Aggravation to the Crime
Homosexual and Other Indecent acts Performed on Minors.
Participation of a Juridical Person in Sexual Outrages Committed on Minors
Sexual Intercourse with an Animal

Section III- EXPLOITATION OF THE IMMORALITY OF OTHERS

Habitual Exploitation for Pecuniary Gain
Traffic in Women and Minors
Aggravation to the Crime
Organization of Traffic in Women and Minors
Criminal Liability of a Juridical person

Section IV- CRIMES TENDING TO CORRUPT MORALS

Public Indecency and Outrages against Morals
Obscene or Indecent Publications
Obscene or Indecent Performances
Lawful Works
Indecent Publicity and Advertisements
Protection of Minors
Criminal Liability of a Juridical Person

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST THE FAMILY

Section I- CRIMES AGAINST THE INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE

Fraud and Deceit in Marriage
Solemnizing or Contracting an unlawful Marriage
Early Marriage
Where Solemnization or Conclusion of an Unlawful Marriage is not Punishable
Bigamy
Exception
Adultery
Death of Complainant

SECTION II- SEXUAL CRIMES BETWEEN RELATIVES

Incest
Indecent Behavior between Relatives

Section III – CRIMES AGAINST COMPULSORY REGISTRATION AND FAMILY DUTIES

Omission to Register the Birth of an Infant or to Report its Abandonment
False Registration, Supposition and Substitution or Infants
Failure to Maintain
Failure to bring up

CHAPTER III

COMMON PROVISIONS

Concurrence of Crimes
Criminal Liability of a Minor

BOOK VI

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

TITLE I

Crimes Against Rights In Property

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Principles
Presumption of Unlawful or Unjustifiable Enrichment
Proceedings in the Event of a Crime within the Family

CHAPTER II

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

Section I- CRIMES AGAINST MOVABLE PROPERTY

Theft.
Abstracting Power
Abstraction of Things Jointly Owned
Abstraction to the Detriment of a Deceased Person
Aggravated Theft
Robbery
Aggravated Robbery
Looting
Piracy
Special Cases
Breach of Trust.
Aggravated Breach of Trust
Misuse or Waste of State or Public Property
Unlawful Use of the Property of Another
Misappropriation
Misappropriation of Lost Property
Misappropriation of Things without Owner or of Natural Resources
Receiving
Aggravated Receiving
Money Laundering and Aiding.

Section II- CRIMES AGAINST IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

Damage to Property of Another Caused by Herds or Flocks
Disturbance of Possession
Disturbance of Another’s Holdings
Displacement and Removal of Boundary Marks

Section III- DAMAGE TO PROPERTY

General Provisions
Aggravated Cases
Aggravated Means

CHAPTER III

CRIMES AGAINST RIGHTS IN PROPERTY

Section I- CRIMES INVOLVING FRAUD

Fraudulent Misrepresentation
Drawing of Cheque without Cover
Fraudulent Manipulation of Stock Exchange Transactions
Gaming in Stocks or Merchandise
Aggravated Fraudulent Misrepresentation
Other Crimes
Fraudulent Acts Relating to Insurance.
Misrepresentation by Forgery.
Misrepresentation by Fraudulent Exploitation of Public Credulity
Other Fraudulent Acts
Mismanagement of Private Interests
Aggravated Case
Incitement to Speculation
Incitement of Incapable Persons to carry out Prejudicial Assignments

Section II- Computer Crimes

Access, Taking or Using Computer Services without Authorization
Causing Damage to Data
Disrupting the Use of Computer Services by an Authorized User
Acts Committed to Facilitate the Commission of Computer Crimes
Other Crimes
Concurrence of Crimes

Section III- Crimes involving Moral or Material Intimidation

Usury
Extortion
Blackmail
Aggravated Cases

TITLE II

Economic And Commercial Crimes

Participation of a Juridical Person in a Crime

CHAPTER I

CRIMES AGAINST INTANGIBLE RIGHTS

Attack on Another’s Credit
Harmful False Information
Unfair Competition
Infringement of Marks, Declarations of Origin, Designs or Models
Infringement of Rights Relating to Literary, Artistic or Creative Works.
Right of Complaint
Aggravated Cases
Related Sanctions

CHAPTER II

CRIMES RELATING TO PROCEEDINGS OF DEBT, EXECUTION AND BANKRUPTCY

Fraudulent Insolvency
Irregular Bankruptcy
Fraudulent Bankruptcy
Fraud in Execution
Misappropriation or Destruction of Property Subject to Pledge or Lien
Misappropriation or Destruction of Property Subject to a Court Order
Unjustifiable Preference
Purchase of Votes
Fraudulent Composition

PART III

CODE OF PETTY OFFENCES

BOOK VII

GENERAL PART

TITLE I

Directives Governing Liability To Punishment

CHAPTER I

PEOPLE OF THE LEGAL PROVISIONS

Reference to General Principles
Petty Offences
Application as to Offence
Equality before the Law
Application as to Place
Foreign Sentences

CHAPTER II

LIABILITY TO PUNISHMENT

Punishable Acts and Persons
Conditions for Liability to Punishment
Measures for Purposes of Clarification
Justification and Excuses
Mistake
Extenuating and Aggravating Circumstances

TITLE II

Rules Governing Penalties

CHAPTER I

PENALTIES AND MEASURES APPLICABLE

Section I- Principal Penalties

Exclusion of Ordinary Criminal Penalties
Arrest
Enforcement of Ordinary Arrest
Arrest in a Home or an Establishment
Special Method of Enforcement in case of Members of the Defence Forces and Young Offenders
Compulsory Labour in substitution for Arrest
Fine; Ordinary Case
Conversion of Fine into Compulsory Labour
Recovery of Fine; Special Case of Members of the Defence
Reparation of the Damage

Section II- Secondary Penalties

Warning and Reproof
Exclusion of Forfeiture of Rights

Section III- Safety Measures

Guarantee of Good Conduct
Confiscation and Forfeiture to the State prohibition of Undertakings and Suspension of a Work Permit
Principal Cases Where Confiscation and Suspension are Applicable
Prohibitions and Restrictions upon Liberty Affecting Persons.

Section IV- MEASURES FOR PURPOSE OF INFORMATION

Notice to the Authority Concerned and Publication.
Entry into the Register of Judgements.

CHAPTER II

ENFORCEMENT OF THE PENALTY

Exclusion of Suspension and Conditional Release
Extenuation of the Penalty
Ordinary Aggravation of the Penalty
Aggravation in case of Concurrence
Aggravation in Case of Recidivism
Concurrence and Recidivism

CHAPTER III
CONDITIONS FOR INSTITUTING PROCEEDINGS,

SUSPENDING AND EXTINGUISHING THE

PROSECUTION AND THE PENALTY

Prosecution
Conditions as to Complaint
Limitation
Pardon and Amnesty
Reinstatement

BOOK VIII

SPECIAL PART

TITLE I

Petty Offences Against Public Interests And The Community

GENERAL PROVISIONS

General Provisions regarding Petty Offences not expressly covered under this Title
General Provision regarding Participation of a Juridical Person in Petty Offences under this Title

CHAPTER II

PETTY OFFENCES AGAINST STATE OR PUBLIC INTERESTS

Section I- Petty Offences against Public Credit and Confidence

Refusal of Legal Tender
Failure to Report the Possession of Counterfeit Money
Use of Illicit Weights and Measures
Use of Expired or Falsified Transport Titles
Fraudulent Securing and Use of Degrees and Certificates
Unlawful Making of, Trafficking in, and Wearing of, Civilian Decorations and Insignia

Section II- Petty Offences of a Fiscal, Administrative or Financial Nature

Violation of Provisions dealing with Fiscal Rights
Violations of Provisions Dealing with Illicit Traffic in Gold, or Currencies
Violation of Provisions on Precious Metals
Violation of Provisions Regarding Negotiable Instruments
Violation of Provisions Concerning Savings and Banks
Violation of Provisions Regarding Lotteries, Gambling and Betting
Violation of Provisions on Price Control
Violation of Provisions Regarding Organization, Exercise and Control of Trades and Professions

CHAPTER III

BREACHES OF MILITARY DUTIES AND

CONTRAVENTIONS AGAINST THE DEFENCE AND POLICE FORCES

Determining Military Contraventions
Military Disciplinary penalties
Contravention’s against the Defence Forces
Application the Police

CHAPTER IV

PETTY OFFENCES AGAINST THE DUTIES OF A PUBLIC OFFICE OR A PUBLIC AUTHORITY

Section I- Petty Offences against the Duties of a Public Office

Misuse of Authority in the discharge of a Public Office
Misuse of the Right of Constraint
Lack of Honesty
Undue Favouring
Careless handing over of Official Papers
Cases of Minor Importance; Disciplinary Punishments

Section II- Petty Offences against a Public Authority

Damage to Official Publications
Failure to Make Compulsory Official Statements or Entries
Undue Publications
Abuse of Right
Refusal to Lend Assistance to a Public Authority
Refusal to Obey an Injunction

CHAPTER V

Petty Offences Against Public Safety, Peace And Security

Section I- Offence against Public Safety

Control of Arms and Ammunition
Carrying and Use of Prohibited Arms
Control of Aliens
Unauthorized Change or Assumption of Another Name

Section II- Petty Offences against Public Peace, Tranquillity and Order

Breaches Against Laws Concerning the Mass Media and Advertisements
Alarming Announcements, News or publications
False Alarm
Disturbance of Work or Rest of Others
Blasphemous or Scandalous Utterances or Attitudes
Observance of Official Holidays
Measures against Alcoholism
Causing Public Scandal while Drunk or Intoxicated
Supervision of Inns
Supervision of Theatrical Performances and Entertainments
Scandalous Treatment of Animals

Section III- Petty Offences against Public Security

Petty Offences against other persons’ Safety
Failure to Exercise Proper Supervision over Dangerous Persons or Animals
Control of Traffic at Night
Supervision of Buildings
Control of Streets and Public Places
Endangering Safety of Communications
Control of Fire, Explosive and Dangerous Substances

CHAPTER VI

PETTY OFFENCES AGAINST PUBLIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE

Control of Public Health and Salubrity
Control of Toxic Substances and Drugs
Rendering another Person Unconscious or Stupefied
Control of Foodstuffs, Beverages and other Commodities
Regulation of the medical and Therapeutic Professions and Hospitals
Failure to Make Compulsory Notifications
Failure to Afford Attendance
Regulation of Burials and Cremations

TITLE II

Petty Offences Against Persons And Property

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

General Provision Regarding Petty Offences not Covered Under this Title
General Provision Regarding Participation of a Juridical Person in Petty Offences Under this Title

CHAPTER II

PETTY OFFENCES AGAINST PERSONS

Section I- Petty Offences Relating to the protection of Persons
Assault and Minor Acts of Violence
Concealment of a Corpse
Petty Offences against Personal Liberty
Infringement of the Right to private Secrecy
Slight Petty Offences against Honour

Section II- Petty Offences against Morality

Petty Offences against Decency and Morality
Immoral Soliciting and Debauchery
Advertising for Debauchery
Publicity relating Abortion

CHAPTER III

PETTY OFFENCES AGAINST PROPERTY

Section I- Protection of the National Wealth

Protection of Historical, Artistic and Natural Riches
Protection of the Flora and Fauna

Section II- Petty Offences against Property

Protection of Public and Private Property
Petty Theft
Pilfering and Gleaning
Unjustified possession of Suspicious Articles
Failure to Notify the Competent Authority and Concealment of Property
Defacement of Depreciation of Another Person’s Property
Damage to Public Monuments

Section III- Petty Offences against Property in General

Malicious Injury to Another Person’s Interests
Filching
Fraudulent obtaining of other Benefits
Quackery
Unauthorized Collections

CHAPTER IV

PETTY ECONOMIC, TRADE OR MARITIME OFFENCES

Breach of the Provisions Concerning the Keeping of Books and Account
Resistance to Compulsory Execution.
Violation of Regulations regarding the Merchant Service