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Crimes Against Rights In Property

BOOK VI
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
TITLE I
CRIMES AGAINST RIGHTS IN PROPETY
CHAPTER I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 662- Principles.

(1)    Any interference with property and economic rights or rights capable of being calculated in money forming a part of the property of another shall be punished in accordance with the following provisions, except where the interference is of such minor importance as to be subject to the provisions and sanctions regarding petty offences.
(2)    State, public and private properties are protected under this Code.
Damage to rights in property within the meaning or this Code is constituted by any injury or prejudice suffered in comparison with the normal situation in the absence of the crime.

Article 663- Presumption of Unlawful or Unjustifiable Enrichment.

(1)    Where the law requires, in order that there be a crime, that the criminal shall have acted with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unlawful enrichment, there is a presumption that the act was done in order to obtain or procure a benefit or an unjustifiable advantage.
(2)    In such event, the crime is completed from the time when such special intent, joined to the material elements, is proved, notwithstanding that the intended enrichment has not taken place. Repayment or the making good of the damage, even if unsolicited, after such time, does not vitiate the crime, but the Court may take account thereof in determining the sentence (Art. 79 (e)).

Article 664- Proceedings in the Event of a Crime within the Family.

(1)    Except in the cases of crimes involving violence or coercion, such as robbery, extortion or blackmail, where a crime has been committed:
a)    between an ascendant and a descendant, natural or adoptive, between spouses not separated, between a step-parent and step-child while the marriage exists, between siblings of the whole blood or of the half blood; or
b)    by relatives living with the victim,
proceedings may only be taken upon the complaint of the victim.
(2)    The absence of a complaint by the victim shall not act as a bar to proceedings against participants in a crime not covered by the personal relations as defined above (Art. 41).

CHAPTER II
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Section I- CRIMES AGAINST MOVABLE PROPERTY

Article 665- Theft.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for another an unlawful enrichment, abstracts a movable or a thing detached from an immovable, the property of another, whether by taking and carrying or by direct appropriation, or by having it pass indirectly to his own property,
is punishable according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.
(2)    Where the criminal himself has detached the movable object from an immovable property, and while so doing has caused damage to the movable or immovable property, the provisions of Articles 689-691 shall apply concurrently.
(3)    Where any person has committed petty abstraction of the property of another of a very small value, he shall be punishable according to the provisions relating to petty offences (Arts. 852 and 853).

Article 666- Abstracting Power.

Whoever with intent to enrich himself or a third person abstracts power, whether gas, steam, electrical or other energy, from an installation or conduit belonging to another,
is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 667- Abstraction of Things Jointly Owned.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain or to procure to a third person an unlawful enrichment, abstracts a thing which he owns jointly with another, whether as co-owner, partner or heir,
is punishable, upon complaint, with simple imprisonment or fine.
(2)    The criminal may, however, not be convicted where consumable things are abstracted in an amount not exceeding that due to him.

Article 668- Abstraction to the Detriment of a Deceased person.

Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for another an unlawful enrichment, abstracts objects buried with a deceased person from a tomb or vault, or from a dead body, whether buried or not, or abstracts the dead body or one of its parts,
is punishable according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 669-  Aggravated Theft.

Simple imprisonment shall be of not less than one year, or rigorous imprisonment, if to be ordered, shall not exceed fifteen years, according to the gravity of the crime, in the following cases where the act is aggravated by the object, the personal status of the criminal or the circumstances surrounding the theft:
(1)    where the crime relates to:
a)    sacred or religious objects, or objects of scientific, artistic or historical value, in places of worship or museums or other public buildings or buildings open to the public; or
b)    animals or crops without special protection, or objects or implements without protection and destined for telecommunications, electric power, water and sewerage or fro the services of any other institution, or objects, goods or consignments in deposit or in a firm or public office, in particular post offices or transport offices.
(2)    where the crime has been committed:
a)    by a member of the Defence Forces, against his fellows or superiors, or against objects belonging to or destined to the army; or
b)    by a public servant, or by a businessman, banker, attorney, notary, advocate, agent, representative or manager in the exercise of his functions and relating to public or private objects available to him by reason of his special status; or
c)    by an innkeeper, landlord, carrier, porter or other similar person, against a client; or
d)    by a servant, employee or apprentice taking advantage of his status to the detriment of the employer.
(3)    Where the criminal:
a)    has acted as a member of a group formed to commit crimes against persons or property; or
b)    in any other circumstances showing that he is especially dangerous, in particular where he carries arms or house-breaking instruments, of assault or defence, where he has usurped the status of a public servant, where he has acted at night, by climbing over or breaking in, with a group, or under cover of an emergency, public disturbance or a disaster, such as a riot, a fire or a flood.

Article 670- Robbery.

Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for another an unlawful enrichment, and with a view to facilitate the abstraction of a movable object, the property of another, or to render useless any resistance offered during or after the act of abstraction, uses violence or grave intimidation towards a person or otherwise renders such person incapable of resisting,
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding fifteen years.

Article 671- Aggravated Robbery.

(1)    Where the criminal has committed the act specified under Article 669:
a)    as a member of a gang formed in order to commit acts of violence against persons or property; or
b)    by seriously threatening his victim with death in particular by means of arms or of a dangerous weapon, or by submitting him to suffering or grave bodily injury; or
c)    in any other circumstance showing that he is particularly dangerous,
he is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years.
(2)    The Court may order rigorous imprisonment for life, or in the most serious cases, the death penalty, where the criminal has acted together with a gang, used arms or other dangerous weapons, means imperiling collective security or means of particular cruelty or where the acts of violence committed have resulted in permanent disability or death.
Armed robbery committed habitually by a gang is punishable with death.

Article 672- Looting.

Whoever commits acts of looting:
a)    particularly of food, provisions, supplies, machines or property of special value to the life of the population or the economy or progress of the country; or
b)    on the occasion of distress on land, at sea or in the air, such as collision, forced landing or shipwreck,
is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, for ordinary or aggravated robbery (Art. 670 or 671).

Article 673- Piracy.

Whoever, at sea, commits an act of piracy,
is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, for ordinary or aggravated robbery (Art. 670 or 671).

Article 674- Special Cases.

Robbery, looting or piracy committed in war time in breach of international law, are dealt with in accordance with the special provisions relating thereto (Art. 273).

Article 675- Breach of Trust.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unjustifiable enrichment, appropriates, or procures for another, takes or causes to be taken, misappropriates, uses to his own benefit or that of a third person, or disposes of for any similar act, in whole or in part, a thing or a sum of money which is the property of another and which has been delivered to him in trust or for a specific purpose,
is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.
(2)    Property of another includes a sum of money, object or thing of value received by the criminal in consideration of a sum of money, object or thing of value entrusted to him for sale, purchase, exchange or other specific purpose.
(3)    The intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unjustifiable enrichment shall be presumed where the criminal is unable upon call, to produce or repay the thing or sum entrusted, or at the time when he should have returned it or accounted therefore.

Article 676- Aggravated Breach of Trust.

(1)    Where the crime is committed against the property of the State or that of a public organization, or where the criminal is a public official, an appointee or a public trustee or an elected representative,
the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment from five years to fifteen years, and fine not exceeding one hundred thousand Birr.
(2)    The crime is punishable with simple imprisonment for not less than one Year, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding fifteen years, where:
a)    the criminal is a tutor or a curator, liquidator, legal or financial advisor, agent, attorney, property administrator, or any other person to whom the property is available by virtue of his duties or responsibilities; or
b)    the criminal has misused a signed blank document entrusted to him in order to create an obligation, discharge or any other act capable of imperiling the rights in property of the signatory; or
c)    the crime has been committed by a person making an offer to the public to subscribe in order to obtain for himself or on behalf of a banking, commercial or industrial company or other undertaking, the transfer of funds or securities.

Article 677- Misuse or Waste of State or Public Property.

(1)    Whoever, without intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unjustifiable enrichment, intentionally:
a)    improperly uses, lends, sells, transfers to others, exchanges or pledges or mortgages state or public property; or
b)    alienates, loses, endangers, wastes or damages State or public property entrusted or handed over to him or to which he has access by reason of his duties or power,
is punishable, according to the gravity of the case, with simple imprisonment not exceeding five years.
(2)    Where the act is committed negligently, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.

Article 678- Unlawful Use of the Property of Another.

Whoever, without intent to unjustifiably enrich himself or a third person, removes a thing from the owner, in order to deprive the owner thereof or to defraud him, or to make temporary use thereof for his own benefit or that of a third person,
is punishable, upon complaint, with a fine not exceeding five thousand Birr, or, in grave cases, with simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.

Article 679- Misappropriation.

Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unjustifiable enrichment, appropriates:
a)    a thing the property of another and of which he has come into possession by mistake, accident, the operation of natural forces such as wind or water or in any other manner independently of the will of the owner; or
b)    an animal, the property of another, which was strayed into his possession,
is punishable, upon complaint, with simple imprisonment or fine.

Article 680- Misappropriation of Lost Property.

(1)    Whoever, without notifying the authorities or taking the necessary steps to trace the owner, appropriates lost property which he has found,
is punishable, upon compliant, with a fine not exceeding five thousand Birr, or, according to the gravity of the case, with simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.
(2)    Whoever finds a treasure and appropriates it without making the necessary declaration with a view to its assignment to the State as provided by the law, or the assignment of a part thereof to the property owner, is liable to the punishments prescribed under sub-article (1).

Article 681- Misappropriation of Things without Owner or of Natural Resources.

(1)    The ownership of things without an owner, such as natural resources, as well as the taking on land, in the air or on water of wild animals not the property of another, is governed by the provisions of civil and public law (Arts. 849 and 850).
(2)    The misappropriation or abstracting, with intent to obtain an unlawful enrichment, or historical, archaeological or artistic objects being the property of the State is punishable under the ordinary provisions regarding theft or breach of trust.

Article 682- Receiving.

(1)    Whoever receives a thing, which he knows is the proceeds of a crime committed against property by another, or acquires the thing, or receives it on loan, as a gift, in pledge or in any manner whatever, or consumes it, retains or hides it, resells it or assists in its negotiation,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or in more serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine.
(2)    Whoever, within the meaning of the above provision, intentionally receives a sum or a thing arising out of the realization or replacement of a thing obtained though the commission of a crime, is liable to the punishments prescribed under sub-article (1).
(3)    Where the act under sub-article (1) or (2) is committed negligently, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.
(4)    The sentencing of the accused is without prejudice to the sentencing of the original criminal.
(5)    The provisions permitting the immunity of the principal criminal from charge by reason of kinship (Art. 664), or the mitigation of his punishment by reason of close affection (Art. 83), do not apply to a receiver.

Article 683- Aggravated Receiving.

The deprivation of liberty shall not exceed fifteen years of rigorous imprisonment, and the fine shall not exceed twenty thousand Birr, where the criminal:
a)    commits the crime as a member of a group formed to commit crimes against persons or property; or
b)    exercises his professional or trade license for the purpose of carrying on acts of receiving; or
c)    receives objects which he knows come from acts of robbery, looting, piracy, extortion, blackmail, or objects taken from the Defence Forces or from State property in general.

Article 684- Money Laundering and Aiding.

(1)    Whoever launders money or property, derived from corruption, drug trafficking, illegal arms dealings or crimes indicated under Article 243 (2) or (3), Article 262, (1) or (2), Article 455 (2), Article 506 (3) or (4), Articles 507-509, Articles 510 (2), Article 511 (2) or (3) or (5), or Article 512, or any similar serious crime, by disguising its source through investment, transfer or remission,
Is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to fiteen years, and fine not exceeding one hundred thousand Birr.
(2)    Whoever, knowingly alters, remits, receives, possesses or makes use of money or property obtained through one of the crimes specified under sub-article (1),
is liable to the penalty under sub-article (1).
(3)    Whoever, knowing or having sufficient ground to know the commission of the crime specified under sub-article (1) or (2) above, fails to inform the appropriate authority,
is punishable with simple imprisonment not exceeding six months.
(4)    Whoever, knowing or suspecting the initiation of investigation by the police or that it is about to initiate one relating to the crime under sub-article (1) or (2) that a report has been made, or that the case has been assigned to the concerned individual in accordance with internal regulations, informs or tips-off the suspect or any third person,
is punishable with simple imprisonment for not less than one year.
(5)    Whoever, knowing that such property is the proceeds of the crime indicted in sub-article (1) above, converts or transfers property for the purpose of concealing or devising the illicit origin of the property or helps any person involved in the commission of the same crime, or conceals or disguises the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to the property,
Is punishable with the penalty provided for the crime under sub-article (1) above.
(6)    Where a juridical person participates in one of the crimes specified above, the punishment shall be determined in accordance with Article 90 of this Code.
(7)     For the purpose of this Article “serious crime” is:
a)    where the crime is punishable with rigorous imprisonment for ten years or more, and
b)    where the amount of money or the value of property involved in the crime is at least fifty thousand Birr.

             Section II- CRIMES AGAINST IMMOVABLE PROPETRY

Article 685- Damage to Property of Another Caused by Herds or Flocks.

(1)    Whoever  intentionally and unlawfully brings or permits his herds or flocks to pasture or stray on the land which is the possession of another, whether in pasturages, fields, gardens, woods, forests or any other land,
is punishable, upon complaint, with a fine not exceeding five hundred Birr, or with simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.
(2)    In minor cases, in particular in failing to exercise proper custody, the provisions regarding petty offences shall apply (Art. 851(b)).

Article 686- Disturbance of Possession.

(1)    Whoever unlawfully, with intent to procure a profit or benefit,
a)    encroaches on or occupies land or buildings, the possession of another; or
b)    in any other manner, interferes with the quiet possession of another,
is punishable, upon complaint, with fine or simple imprisonment.
(2)    Where the disturbance has involved violence, threats or the collaboration of a large number of persons, or has been committed by a person carrying a dangerous weapon, it shall be punished, upon indictment, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 687- Disturbance of Another’s Holdings.

Whoever unlawfully, with intent to obtain or to procure to a third person a profit or benefit:
a)    modifies the condition of another person’s immovable property or the fixtures appurtenant thereto; or
b)    diverts the course of public or private waters,
is punishable with simple imprisonment for not less than three months, and fine, or, according to the circumstances of the case, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 688- Displacement and Removal of Boundary Marks.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to disturb the rights or property of another, or to obtain or to procure to a third person an unlawful benefit, removes, displaces, misplaces, falsifies or obscures a boundary mark or any other mark of demarcation of property,
is punishable, in accordance with the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment for not less than three months, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.
(2)    Where the act has been committed in the absence of the foregoing intent, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding three months, or fine.

                 Section III- DAMAGE TO PROPERTY

Article 689- General Provisions.

Whoever, apart from the cases punishable under Article 685, intentionally destroys, damages, depreciates or renders useless the property of another, whether objects, implements, animals, trees, crops, agricultural products, forests, installations, or any other immovable property or any thing whatsoever, or land under his possession,
is punishable, upon complaint, with simple imprisonment or fine.

Article 690- Aggravated Cases.

(1)    The crime shall be punishable, upon accusation, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding seven years and fine:
a)    where the criminal has acted through malice or with intent to cause harm and has so caused considerable damage, or where even without that particular intent, he has intentionally caused highly considerable damage; or
b)    where the act was accompanied by threats or violence or accomplished by several persons particularly by employers or employees during conflicts, lock-outs or strikes.
(2)    Where the property which the criminal destroyed or inflicted grave injury to is an object of worship or of high historic, scientific or artistic value; or a public building, monument or historical place unguarded on account of the trust in public protection; or an installation, telecommunication or electric power line, or a plantation,
the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years, or in very serious cases, rigorous imprisonment from ten years to twenty years.
(3)    Where the crime is committed to compel the government, a juridical person, a group or a natural person to do or to abstain from doing an act, by resorting to threat of causing death or physical injury to another or of detaining another,
the penalty under sub-article (2) above shall apply.

Article 691- Aggravated Means.

Where the criminal, with particular intent to destroy, damage, depreciate or render useless the property of another, has employed means endangering public security, such as landslide, flooding, explosion or fire, the relevant provisions prescribing for more severe punishments shall apply concurrently (Art. 66).

CHAPTER III
CRIMES AGAINST RIGHTS IN PROPERTY
Section I- CRIMES INVOLVING FRAUD

Article 692- Fraudulent Misrepresentation.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unlawful enrichment, fraudulently causes a person to act in a manner prejudicial to his rights in property, or those of a third person, whether such acts are of commission or omission, either by misleading statements, or by misrepresenting his status or situation or by concealing facts which he had a duty to reveal, or by taking advantage of the person’s erroneous beliefs,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, according to the gravity of the case, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine.
(2)    Petty deceit in order to obtain an unjustifiable enrichment, such as filching and the fraudulent obtaining of benefits is liable to the punishments regarding petty offences (Art. 858 and 859).

Article 693- Drawing of Cheque without Cover.

(1)    Whoever intentionally draws a cheque without cover or knows that there will not be full cover at the time of presentment for payment,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or according to the gravity of the case, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years, and fine.
(2)    Where the act is committed negligently, the punishment shall be fine, or simple imprisonment not exceeding one year.

Article 694- Fraudulent Manipulation of Stock Exchange Transactions.

Whoever, through the facility of a stock exchange market or other market, with intent to create a false or misleading appearance of active public trading in a security or with respect to the market price of a security:
a)    effects a transaction in the security that involves no change in the beneficial ownership thereof; or
b)    enters an order for the purchase of the security, knowing that the security has been purchased by the same or different persons at substantially the same size, at substantially the same time, at substantially the same price, or an order for such purchase of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons; or
c)    enters an order for the sale of the security, knowing that the security has been sold by the same or different persons at substantially the same size, at substantially the same time, at substantially the same price or an order for such sale of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, in serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 695- Gaming in Stocks or merchandise.

Whoever, with intent to make gain or profit by the rise or fall in price of the stock goods or merchandise of a registered or unregistered company or other undertaking, whether in or outside the country, makes or signs any contract, oral or written, purporting to be for the sale or purchase of shares of stocks, goods or merchandise, without the bona fide intention of acquiring or selling such things,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, in serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 696- Aggravated Fraudulent isrepresentation.

The punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not exceeding fifteen years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr:
a)    where the criminal enjoys a position of trust as defined in Article 676 (1) and (2)(a); or
b)    where the criminal issues an offer for public subscription, or sells for himself, for his own organization or for an organization in which he is a shareholder shares, debentures, bonds or security of any kind in an association, banking or commercial organization, stock market or industrial firm; or
c)    where the crime is committed against public administrations or services.

Article 697- Other Crimes.

Where there is a crime, other than those mentioned above, defined in a proclamation or regulation relating to shares, merchandise, documents, bonds or securities of any kind,
The punishment shall, unless otherwise be provided, simple imprisonment, or, in serious cases, rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.

Article 698- Fraudulent Acts Relating to Insurance.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person an unlawful enrichment, deceives an insurance company:
a)    by creating the risk insured; or
b)    by concealing, misrepresenting, affirming or falsely declaring a fact relating to the amount, duration or beneficiaries of the insurance, in a manner affecting the interest stated in the contract, or
c)    in any other way commits a fraudulent act in connection with insurance activity,
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, in more serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr.
(2)    Where a juridical person commits the crime it shall be punishable in accordance with the provisions of Article 90 of this Code.

Article 699- Misrepresentation by Forgery.

Where there is misrepresentation, of any kind, committed by means of a forgery, the relevant provisions shall apply concurrently.

Article 700- Misrepresentation by Fraudulent Exploitation of Public Credulity.

(1)    Whoever, for gain, deceives another by means such as invoking spirits, magic or sorcery, consulting horoscopes or astrology, by interpretation of dreams, soothsaying, chirography, divining or by any other means of exploiting human credulity,
is punishable, upon complaint, with fine, or in the event of repetition of the crime, with simple imprisonment, or, in serious cases, with simple imprisonment, or, in serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five year, where the case does not fall under the provisions regarding petty offences (Art. 861).
(2)    Where the deceit is committed in the manner stipulated under Article 692, the punishment prescribed under the specified provision shall apply.

Article 701- Other Fraudulent Acts.

(1)    Whoever collects money or material things by falsely claiming to have contracted a serious disease or deficiency, or alleging to have sustained grave physical or psychological injury or pecuniary or other material loss, or by using any other fraudulent means appealing to the compassionate feelings of others, is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment and fine, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years and fine.
(2)     Whoever employs another as a means of obtaining advantage through beggary by misrepresenting to the public that the said person is in one of the predicaments specified in the above sub-article, and collects money or other material things from individuals or the public on the pretext of supporting the person, shall be liable to the punishment prescribed in sub-article (1) above.
(3)    Whoever, by inflicting injury upon another, employs him for the purpose specified in sub-article (2) above,
Is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from three years to ten years, and fine.
Nothing in this sub-article shall prevent the concurrent application of the provisions on causing injuries to persons (Art. 548 and 549).
(4)    Whoever collects with or without authorization by law or by the competent authority, any money or other material things from individuals or the public for political, religious, cultural, social, humanitarian or other purpose, and improperly disposes of such things in whole or in part outside the purpose for which they are collected,
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years, and fine not exceeding thirty thousand Birr, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 862 of this Code concerning Unauthorized Collection.
(5)    Where a juridical person participates in the commission of one of the crimes specified under sub-article (2), (3), or (4) of this Article, it shall be punishable in accordance with Article 90 of this Code.

Article 702- Mismanagement of Private Interests.

(1)    Whoever, being legally or contractually bound to watch over or to manage the property rights of another, intentionally causes prejudice to such property interest he watches over or to the service he renders to the undertaking he works for by misusing his powers or by failing in his duties,
is punishable with simple imprisonment or fine.
(2)    Where the act is committed negligently, the punishment shall be fine, or simple imprisonment not exceeding six months.
(3)    Where the criminal has committed the crime with intent to obtain for himself  or to procure for another  a benefit in property, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment for not less than one year, and a fine not exceeding thirty thousand Birr.

Article 703- Aggravated Cases.

(1)    Where the crime has been committed:
a)    by a tutor, an advocate, a notary, a banker, a curator or a liquidator, or by other person invested with an official status, or deserving a special confidence; or
b)    against State or public property,
the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr.
(2)    Where the criminal solicits or accepts any kind of  advantage from another in consideration for the performance or omission of an act in violation of his responsibility or duty, he shall be punishable with simple imprisonment for not less than one year, or rigorous imprisonment not exceeding seven years and fine not exceeding twenty thousand Birr.
In grave cases, the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment for not less than five years, and fine not exceeding one hundred thousand Birr.
(3)    Any person who, for the performance of an act proper to his responsibility or duty, solicits or obtains an advantage or exacts a promise before or after the performance of such an act,
is punishable, according to the circumstances of the case, with simple imprisonment for not less than one year, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years and fine not exceeding ten thousand Birr.
(4)    In the case of fraudulent mismanagement of State interests, corrupt practices or acceptance of undue advantaged committed by a public servant or official, the special provisions (Arts. 409, 410 and 412) shall apply.

Article 704- Incitement to Speculation.

(1)    Whoever, with intent to obtain for himself or to procure for a third person a benefit in property, takes advantage of the carelessness, the confidence or the manifest business inexperience of a person in order to incite him to speculate, whether on securities or goods, while he knew that the transaction was flagrantly not in proportion to the holding of the speculator and would expose him to serious risk,
is punishable, upon complaint, with simple imprisonment or fine.
(2)    Where the crime is committed negligently, it shall be punishable with fine.

Article 705- Incitement of Incapable Persons to carry out Prejudicial Assignments.

(1)    Whoever, with the intent specified in Article 704, takes advantage of the carelessness, confidence or inexperience of a minor or a person who is legally incapable,
a)    in order to obtain a grant, promise or guarantee in his own favour or in favour of a third person, of sums of money, loans, acknowledgments of debt or other benefits in property; or
b)    in general, to obtain or avoid an assignment so as to prejudice his property or that of a third person,
is punishable, upon compliant, with simple imprisonment or fine.
(2)    Whoever, with a similar intent, obtains such a promise, claim or guarantee and sets it up against or assigns it to another, is liable to the same punishments.

              Section II- Computer Crimes

Article 706- Access, Taking or Using Computer Services without Authorization.

(1)    Whoever, without authorization, accesses a computer, computer system or computer network,
is punishable with fine.
(2)    Whoever, without authorization, accesses a computer, computer system or computer network, and intentionally takes or uses or causes to be used data or computer services,
is punishable with simple imprisonment or fine, or in serious cases, with rigorous imprisonment for not more than five years and fine not exceeding twenty thousand Birr.
(3)    Where the crime is committed negligently, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding three months, or fine not exceeding two thousand Birr.

Article 707- Causing Damage to Data.

(1)    Whoever, without authorization, accesses a computer, computer system or computer network and intentionally causes damage by adding, altering, deleting or destroying data,
is punishable with simple imprisonment for not less than three months, or fine.
(2)    Where the crime is committed:
(a)    in order to devise or execute any scheme or artifice to steal, defraud, deceive or extort or wrongfully control or obtain money, property, computer services or any data; or
(b)    in serious cases even in the absence of the scheme provided for under sub-article 2(a),
the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment for not more than five years, and fine not exceeding twenty thousand Birr.
(3)    Where the crime is committed negligently, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding three months, or fine not exceeding two thousand Birr.

Article 708- Disrupting the Use of Computer Services by an Authorized User.

(1)    Whoever, without authorization, accesses a computer, computer system or computer network, and intentionally disrupts the use of the computer by an authorized user,
is punishable with simple imprisonment not exceeding three years or fine.
(2)    Where the crime is committed negligently, the punishment shall be simple imprisonment not exceeding three months, or fine not exceeding two thousand Birr.

Article 709- Acts Committed to Facilitate the Commission of Computer Crimes.

Whoever, with intent to further the commission of one of the acts specified in the preceding three Articles, imports, produces, sells, offers for sale, distributes, buys, receives or possesses instruments, secret Codes or passwords,
is punishable with simple imprisonment or fine or both.

Article 710- Other Crimes.

Where one of the other crimes provided for under this Code is committed by means of a computer, the relevant provision shall apply.

Article 711- Concurrence of Crimes.

Where any crime committed by means of a computer, has resulted in the commission of another crime punishable under this Code, the relevant provision shall apply concurrently.

                      Section III- Crimes involving Moral or Material Intimidation

Article 712- Usury.

(1)    Whoever, by exploiting a person’s reduced circumstances or dependency, material difficulties, or carelessness, in experience, weak character or mind:
a)    lends him money at a rate exceeding the official rate; or
b)    obtains a promise or assignment of benefits in property in exchange for pecuniary or other consideration, which is in evident disproportion,
shall be punishable, according to the gravity of the case, with simple imprisonment, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine.
(2)    Whoever, with a similar intent, acquires an usurious claim and sets it up against or assigns it to another, shall be liable to the same punishments.

Article 713- Extortion.

Whoever, in cases not amounting to robbery (Art. 670), uses violence or grave threats against a person, or in any other manner renders such person unable to resist, in order to obtain for himself or to procure to a third party an unjustifiable benefit in property, whether by an assignment of funds or securities, documents or writing, executing or evidencing the transaction, disposition or discharge, or any other similar benefit,
Shall be punishable, according to the gravity of the case, with simple imprisonment for not less than three months, or with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine.

Article 714- Blackmail.

Whoever causes a person to purchase silence to the detriment of his estate or that of another, by threatening to publish, divulge or denounce a fact, even if true, the knowledge of which is damaging to himself or to a third party with whom the victim has close ties of relationship or affection,
Shall be liable to the penalties specified in the preceding Article 713.

Article 715- Aggravated Cases.

The punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not exceeding ten years and fine not exceeding ten thousand Birr, where a person accused of usury, extortion or blackmail,
a)    wrongfully exercises a profession, duty or trade for which he has received a license or permission from the public authorities; or
b)    commits the crime against infants or young persons, or persons who are of feeble mind, or incapable of understanding; or
c)    having so foreseen, has induced his victim to ruin or suicide by his acts or their repetition.